Changes in the carbohydrate content, enzyme activity and amino acid profile of malt flours at various germination periods
Malt flours are obtained using various grains (such as barely, sorghum, wheat and rye). Malting represents technological process that involves several operations: steeping, germination and kilning, giving malt flour as a final product. This type of flour is usually used in brewing but also often used as an addition to wheat flour to enrich it in order to obtain better technological characteristics for bread and bakery goods. Literature data provide information on highly enzymatic malt flours. However, there is a lack of data in the literature on the total changes during germination in malting process involving carbohydrates, as well as protein complex changes.The aim of this project is to monitor changes during the malting process. For the realization of the main goal, experimental micro-malting of several wheat and barley samples will be conducted. Samples from the various germination periods (0, 24, 72 and 96 hours.) will be evaluated using the determination of α-amylase activity, starch degradation intensity, and qualitative composition of carbohydrates (mono-, di-, oligosaccharides, starch). Furthermore, proteolytic activity, protein content changes (soluble protein and free amino acids content, amino acid profile) will be determined. Moreover, the change in the amount of β-glucan, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity during different germination period will be studied.Various samples of wheat and barley will be malted in experimental Micro-Malting equipment (Joe White Malting Systems) it at different germination periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). The individual groups of carbohydrates (mono-, di- and oligo saccharides) will be analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The α-amylase activity, proteolytic activity, protein content changes (soluble protein, free amino acids), β-glucan content, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity during different germination period will be determined with infrared spectrophotometer. The amino acid profile of malted flour will be identified by using ELITE LaChrom HPLC system.The research in the proposed project will be useful to establish new knowledge about the impact of germination process on starch, carbohydrates, enzymatic activity, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and amino acid profile of malt flour.
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